Stage 1 Mesothelioma
Stage 1 mesothelioma is the earliest stage of cancer and carries the best prognosis for patients.
Key Points About Stage 1 Mesothelioma
Stage 1 mesothelioma is limited to a specific area of the body.
Symptoms are easily confused with rare or mild (chest pain, cough, fever) and other common diseases.
Although there are very few cases that have passed so early, the treatment for patients diagnosed at this stage is usually curative.
Stage 1 mesothelioma patients typically survive 1.5-3 years after diagnosis.
Stage 1 is the earliest stage of mesothelioma. At this stage, mesothelioma affects only one part of the body and does not spread to other parts of the body, depending on the type of mesothelioma (lung, abdomen or heart lining). Because the tumor is localized and is usually small, stage 1 mesothelioma treatment is easiest and in a more favorable prognosis. Unfortunately, the early recognized mesothelioma is rarely seen because there is little noticeable symptom.
Stage 1 Mesothelioma Symptoms
Stage 1 mesothelioma tumors tend to be small and localized, so symptoms are often absent or very light. For this reason, patients are rarely diagnosed at this stage.
When symptoms develop in stage 1, they usually include:
Cough or shortness of breath
Stage 1 Treatment Options
Stage 1 mesothelioma patients are generally healthy, while stage 1 is rarely seen, and include small localized tumors that allow more aggressive treatment options with the intention of healing.
The combination of a multimodal approach or the following treatments is standard for Stage 1 mesothelioma:
Usually, a patient with stage 1 mesothelioma complaint is sent to a surgeon for removal of the tumor.
Surgery can be followed by chemotherapy to ensure that all cancer cells have been destroyed.
Radiation can also be used to help prevent cancer recurrence after surgery, but it can also be used to shrink tumors before surgery. However, this second approach is not usually recommended for stage 1 mesothelioma patients, because of already small-sized tumors.
Stage 2 Mesothelioma
In stage 2 mesothelioma, the tumors started to spread to nearby organs, but the prognosis is better than the advanced stages of the disease.
Key Points About Stage 2 Mesothelioma
The diagnosis of stage 2 mesothelioma indicates that the cancer has spread to the surrounding areas.
Symptoms Stage 2 begins to get more intense and can result in shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest pain, and weight loss.
Therapeutic therapy may be possible in the second stage, usually with a multimodal plan of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation
About four of the patients diagnosed at stage 2 survive for at least 2 years.
Stage 2 is still considered an early stage of mesothelioma, but cancer has spread to nearby organs and tissues, such as a single lung and possibly lymph nodes. However, mesothelioma has not spread to distant regions or locations beyond the site of cancer. The symptoms can also become more apparent. Treatment options Mesothelioma is still available at this stage and helps to improve the prognosis of a patient.
Stage 2 Mesothelioma Symptoms
Cancer Stage 2 Due to its small spread in mesothelioma, the symptoms become more pronounced and will become more severe as the disease continues to spread.
Common symptoms of stage 2 include:
Shortness of breath
Phase 2 Treatment Options
Stage 2 mesothelioma patients are generally suitable for a combination of three standard mesothelioma therapies for multimodal therapy or remission for therapeutic purposes.
The standard approach for stage 2 mesothelioma patients is usually a combination of the following:
Generally, a patient with stage 2 mesothelioma undergoes curative surgery such as extrapleural pneumonectomy or decortication and pleuractomy.
Some forms of chemotherapy, such as Neoadjuvan or adjuvant chemo, will be applied to kill the remaining cancer. Patients with peritoneal mesothelioma can also be given chemotherapy with warm chemotherapy or cytoreduction with HIPEC. Cisplatin and pemetreksed are most often prescribed for stage 2 mesothelioma.
Postoperative radiation may be part of a patient’s treatment plan to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Radiation may also be given before and / or after treatment to control recurrent tumor growth.
Stage 3 Mesothelioma
Stage 3 mesothelioma, cancer has spread to various areas beyond the point of the first tumor.
Key Points Related to Stage 3 Mesothelioma
More patients are diagnosed with stage 3 mesothelioma according to any other stage.
In Type 3, metastasis (spreading) occurs in significant amounts and lymph nodes are frequently affected.
Symptoms for stage 3, or usually severe and painful on the torso, fatigue, weight loss, shortness of breath.
Therapy therapy is an option; However, in many cases, Stage 3 therapy focuses on reducing pain and improving quality of life.
Stage 3 mesothelioma is classified as an advanced disease at this point, where cancer is still localized to some degree, but spreads beyond the area from where it came from. Mesothelioma spreads across the lungs and chest on one side of the body and cancer has invaded the lymph nodes.
Also, regardless of whether local lymph node involvement is determined, there may be tumors beyond the chest wall that affect the chest wall itself, the fat tissue of the breast, or the heart lining (pericardial membrane).
The majority of mesothelioma patients (roughly 70% according to one study) are diagnosed at stage 3 or 4. In the same study, 57% of pleural mesothelioma patients were diagnosed as Stage 3. Treatment therapy becomes less likely and prognosis is usually poor.
Progression of stage 3 mesothelioma
The prognosis for stage 3 patients depends on several factors, including the success of the treatment. In general, most patients in Stage 3 are not eligible for curative surgery and the overall median survival for Stage 3 mesothelioma patients is between 12 and 24 months.
Stage 3 Mesothelioma Symptoms
In stage 3, the symptoms become much more severe and affect the quality of life of the patient in a negative way. The symptoms may arise from tumors that invade lung tissue and chest cavity, but vary depending on cancer progression. In some mesothelioma patients the symptoms are similar to the symptoms of lung infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis.
Chest pain or leakage
Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath (dyspnoea)
Stage 3 Treatment Options
Treatment usually focuses on alleviating symptoms (palliative) and improving prognosis, but curative surgery may still be an option in some eligible patients. For patients who are not candidates for curative surgery, palliative options include thoracentesis, paracentesis, or pericardiocentesis due to mesothelioma.
Multimodal therapy is the standard and is recommended for total healthy and appropriate patients at this stage and a combination of the following three standard treatment options leads to the best survival rates:
While most Stage 3 patients are not candidates for surgery, extrapleural pneumonectomy may be recommended to remove tumors spread to adjacent organs and lymph nodes. Median survival was 34 months in stage 3 patients who were successful in removing all visible tumors from the operation.
Chemotherapy is used after surgery to destroy the remaining mesothelioma cells.
Radiation can be applied before or after surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence or tumor shrinkage. In a study of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy with stage 3 patients undergoing radical pleurectomy surgery, median survival was 21 months, after 28 years, 28% survived.
Stage 4 Mesothelioma
Stage 4 mesothelioma disease is the most advanced form, often accompanied by severe symptoms and an extremely poor prognosis.
Key Points About Stage 4 Mesothelioma
The diagnosis of stage 4 mesothelioma indicates that the disease spreads significantly and involves the lymphatic system.
Mesothelioma Stage 4 symptoms are systemic and the most severe at this stage.
Due to the wide nature of stage 4 mesothelioma, treatment is mostly focused on palliative care (alleviation of symptoms).
The prognosis for stage 4 patients is lowest.
Stage 4 is the most advanced form of mesothelioma disease. In stage 4, it appears that the disease has traveled to one or both of the sides of the body from the primary site to the remote site. In the case of mesothelioma, stage 4 cancer usually spreads in the chest cavity, into the abdomen, and may also go to the brain. Lymph nodes are widely distributed and treatment surgeons are typically not a treatment option and lead to a very poor prognosis.
Stage 4 Mesothelioma Prognosis
The prognosis of a mesothelioma patient depends on number factors. However, patients with mesothelioma diagnosed as Stage 4 usually have a median survival rate of approximately 12 months. Since the treatment option is probably not an option, the cancer will continue to spread and cause respiratory or heart failure. Survival can be extended depending on a number of factors such as cell type, general patient health, treatment response, age and sex.
Stage 4 Mesothelioma Symptoms
In stage 4, the symptoms become more severe and may affect other parts of the body depending on where the cancer is spread.
Stage 4 MESOTELYOM SYMPTOMS
Fire and night sweats
Sealing and pain
Shortness of breath and shortness of breath
Liquid accumulation on the torso or abdomen Weight loss
Swallowing difficulty (dysphagia)
Coughing blood (hemoptysis)
Stage 4 Treatment Options
Stage 4 mesothelioma therapy is performed separately for each patient based on the location and type of tumor, the likelihood of response to treatment, and the ability to swallow the operation. However, tumors are usually so spread that there is no complete resection option with the surgeon. Stage 4 patients with poor overall health and incurable mesothelioma tumors may choose palliative treatment.
In general, standard multimodal treatment schemes that combine surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are not options for stage 4 mesothelioma patients. However, some combinations of the following may be used, as well as palliative options to manage pain and improve quality of life.
Surgery can be performed for palliative reasons to reduce symptoms, reduce pain, and improve quality of life. In addition to tumor removal, doctors may perform procedures to reduce fluid accumulation, including thoracentesis, paracentesis, or pericardiocentesis, depending on the mesothelioma type.
Preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy may reduce tumor size and may help surgical resection while doctors try to remove tumor mass. Successful chemotherapy can reduce symptoms and prolong survival. The most common chemotherapy combination for stage 4 patients was cisplatin and pemetrexed, and median survival was 12.1 months.
Radiotherapy can be used to reduce tumor size and thus lighten the chest pressure, but radiation is not usually recommended at this stage.